Category Archives: Programming

Lands Of Gnora [1/30] – Lower Vulnik Canyons

The “Lands Of Gnora” project consists of a collection of 30 level design assignments – in which I am creating 3D environments related to the fictional universe of Gnora.

The first assignment is the scene of the Lower Vulnik Canyons.

Built with Unity.

Lands Of Gnora

One of the latest projects I’ve taken is a collection of 30 level design assignments I want to create. Apart from being a full playable game – these will only show some scenes from a fictional world I’ve thought of – Gnora.

Gnora is a vast universe in which various cultures developed over the heavy eons that push upon it’s lands. Factions and tribes occasionally fight each-other of, for supremacy. The societal structure is still lead by the upper-classes, known as the Commands.

Apart from their imperfect society and its half-savage residents – Gnora is a beautiful vast Continent.

The “Lands Of Gnora” project will reflect some parts of this fictional world. I will create various environments using Unity and Unreal Engine and I will create short videos presenting them, along adding some ambiental songs I will also create.

Below is a short introduction video to the series. Enjoy!

Nintendo, 129 Of History and FanArt Trends

Nintendo celebrated its 129th birthday. The company that brought life to Mario and Zelda and to Pokemon started as a producer of handmade hanafuda playing cards. It was first established in 1889 by Fusajiro Yamauchi.


Regarding the hanafuda playing cards – there are twelve suits, representing months. Each is designated by a flower, and each suit has four cards. Typically, each suit will have two normal cards and two special cards. The point values could be considered unnecessary and arbitrary, as the most popular games only concern themselves with certain combinations of taken cards.

In 1889, Fusajiro Yamauchi founded Nintendo Koppai for the purposes of producing and selling hand-crafted Hanafuda cards painted on mulberry tree bark. Though it took a while to catch on, soon the Yakuza began using Hanafuda cards in their gambling parlors, and card games became popular in Japan again.

Today, despite its focus on video games, Nintendo still produces the cards in Japan, including a special edition Mario themed set previously available through Club Nintendo. This is mostly in recognition of its own company history, rather than specifically for profit. In 2006, Nintendo published Clubhouse Games (42 All-Time Classics in the United Kingdom) for the Nintendo DS, which included the Koi-Koi game which is played with Hanafuda cards.

There has been released also a book about the history of the company – presenting known and unknown facts about the Nintendo’s works – hundreds of cards, toys and board games developed even before Nintendo entered the video game industry.


Title: The Story of Nintendo Vol.1
Subtitle: 1889-1980 Playing Cards at Game & Watch
Author: Florent Gorges
With the collaboration of: Isao Yamazaki, 
Erik Voskuil and Fabrice Heilig
Edition: 3rd edition
Pagination: 276 color pages
Format: A5
ISBN: 978-2-919603-40-4
EAN: 9782919603404
Official release: 15/11/2017

After experimenting with other types of businesses like cab services or love hotels, Nintendo finally found that it could have success as a consumer electronics and video game company.

On Nintendo’s official site – in the Company’s history section there are descriptions to all the released consoles by Nintendo over the years.

Nintendo Entertainment System

Introduced in 1985, the NES was an instant hit. Over the course of the next two years, it almost single-handedly revitalized the video game industry. Selling over 60 million units, people brought games like Mario and Zelda into their homes for the first time on the NES.

Game Boy

The screen was four-colors-of-gray but the device defined portable gaming and was enormous fun. Game Boy, which came out in 1989, was closely associated with the classic game Tetris when it debuted. Game Boy is the most successful video game system ever released. Since its introduction in 1989, Game Boy has sold well over 150 million systems worldwide. Originally bundled with the game, Tetris, this little handheld became an instant phenomenon.

Super Nintendo Entertainment System

The SNES was released in 1991 and featured 16-bit technology. More processing power meant more entertaining games which helped the SNES sell more than 49 million systems worldwide.

Nintendo 64

The N64 set new standards in realistic 3D gaming when it came out in 1996. Super Mario 64 was the system’s showcase game and thrilled millions with its amazing graphics and gameplay.

Game Boy Pocket

The same year the N64 came out, the Game Boy Pocket found its way into gamers’ school backpacks all over the world. It was smaller than the original Game Boy and came in a variety of colors.

Game Boy Advance

Featuring a larger screen and better graphics than previous versions of the Game Boy, the GBA would go on to sell tens of millions of units worldwide after its North American debut in 2001.

Nintendo GameCube

2001 also saw the release of the Nintendo GameCube which one-upped the graphics and gameplay of the N64. It was the first Nintendo system to use optical discs instead of cartridges for its games.

Game Boy Advance SP

Released in 2003, the Game Boy Advance SP had the same size screen as the Game Boy Advance, but the GBA SP was dramatically smaller, lighter, and folded in a clamshell design to become truly pocket portable. It also featured a rechargeable battery and backlit screen.

Nintendo DS

Featuring two screens, including a touch screen, a microphone, built-in Wi-Fi capability, and backward compatibility, the DS is an incredibly successful portable gaming device beating its rivals in the marketplace by a wide margin.

Nintendo DS Lite

The Nintendo DS is smaller, lighter, and has brighter screens than the previous model and has been embraced by fans. Tens of millions of DS Lites have sold worldwide since its release in early 2006.


In 2006, Nintendo introduced the Wii and with it several advanced, revolutionary features. Wireless motion-sensitive remote controllers, built-in Wi-Fi capability, and a host of other features have made the Wii the best-selling latest generation console system in the world.

Nintendo DSi

In April, Nintendo DSi introduced a revised portable system with two cameras and wireless access to downloadable games via the Nintendo DSi Shop. Wii Sports Resort built on the Wii Sports phenomenon and included the new Wii MotionPlus accessory, which made motion controls even more precise. Wii Fit Plus brought new options and activities to the fitness software and New Super Mario Bros. Wii brought the hand-held game to the home console. The Nintendo DS family of systems set a new all-time calendar-year U.S. sales record for any console or hand-held system.

Nintendo DSi XL

Nintendo DSi XL debuted with screens that were 93 percent larger than those on Nintendo DS Lite. Nintendo and Netflix announced a partnership that would allow most Netflix subscribers to stream movies and TV shows directly through their Wii consoles. The American Heart Association and Nintendo of America formed a multifaceted strategic relationship aimed at helping people create healthy lifestyles through physically active play. The iconic American Heart Association brand appeared on boxes for the Wii Fit Plus and Wii Sports Resort software and for the Wii system itself. Super Mario Galaxy 2 was just as well-received and well-reviewed as the original, Metroid: Other M took the franchise in a new direction and Donkey Kong Country Returns revisited a classic franchise. The Wii Games: Summer 2010 competition brought thousands of people of all ages together in fun competitions.

Nintendo 3DS

In 2011, Nintendo launched the Nintendo 3DS system in North America, and for the first time ever, users could view and play 3D content without special 3D glasses. The Mii Maker™ app let players create their own Mii™ characters to use as virtual avatars, while the online gaming community known as Miiverse™ let users connect with Nintendo fans around the world.

Wii U

Released in 2012, the Wii U™ system included the innovative Wii U GamePad controller that offered users new ways to play together, including off-TV. Wii U was the first Nintendo system to play new games in HD, while remaining backwards compatible with Wii™ games. This system also introduced support for amiibo™ accessories, figures and cards that gave players in-game bonuses in compatible games.

Nintendo 2DS

The Nintendo 2DS™ system joined the Nintendo 3DS™ family in North America in 2013. Its form factor, features, and price made it an excellent option for young gamers. The system played the Nintendo 3DS games only in 2D.

New Nintendo 3DS XL

In 2015, Nintendo released the New Nintendo 3DS XL system in North America. The system offered super-stable face-tracking 3D and screens that were almost twice as large as those of Nintendo 3DS. Built-in amiibo support meant players could more easily tap in amiibo accessories to get bonus in-game content in compatible games.

Nintendo Switch

Released in 2017, the Nintendo Switch™ is a home console that can transition seamlessly to a portable handheld that gamers can enjoy anywhere. The included Joy-Con™ controllers attach to the console while in handheld mode, and can be removed and used separately with compatible games in TV or tabletop modes. The system’s features include built-in amiibo support, motion controls and HD Rumble to makes games more immersive, and the Nintendo Switch Online* service.

New Nintendo 2DS XL

The New Nintendo 2DS XL system debuted in 2017 with screens that are 82% percent larger than the screens for Nintendo 2DS. The system offers customers the power and features of the New Nintendo 3DS XL system in a streamlined, affordable package, and plays a huge library of Nintendo 3DS games in 2D only.

The most popular video-game titles released could be stated: Donkey Kong, Super Mario Bros, Duck Hunt, The Legend of Zelda, Final Fantasy, Double Dragon, Metroid , SimCity, Killer Instinct, Bomber Man, Pokemon, Fire Emblem, Fatal Frame, Bayonetta.


For a more completed list you can follow the link – List Of Nintendo Games.

And since this celebration occurred – fans of the massively popular Mario Universe created a new character – Princess Bowser – depicting the series villain in a different gender and linking its origins to the Mario stories. Twitter has been boiling with fan-arts and discussion about this new character all day long.

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Image submitted by user – 新米(アッテンボローP).

So – who doesn’t remember what it was like to stay up late to finish the Mario game and it’s 99999 variations from the recently purchased cartridge? The feeling of anger when that dog laughed at you for not shooting the ducks… The feeling of starting a new game of Pokemon Red, the tenacity when thugs ganged up against you in Double Dragon and the old master wasn’t there to aid you… The laughs when someone died because of a stupid mistake in Bomber Man or… The deliciously relaxing tunes from Final Fantasy?

Nintendo helped creating these memories and priceless moments from our childhoods.

Cod3: Essential Programming Concepts [Part 01]

So.. before I am moving into learning the C language and some courses on Algorithms and Data Structures.. starting tomorrow morning.. I wanted to go through all my programming knowledge and read all my notes and eventually new explanations to concepts I don’t know that well. This post has been written starting with 11.04 this morning and was ended at 16.52. 🙂

I’ve also got another project on wire-framing tools which has to be worked on today.. at least be finished since I’ve spend like 4 hours Friday to get it done. I won’t get into many details since I am just stating concepts and a little explanation here while in reality I am studying lots of pages.


So.. that being said – let’s proceed. This will be a simple presentation of concepts I am dealing with – and not a detailed work.

Algorithms – Series of steps used to solve various classes of problems and to gain a certain desired result, based on input-output situations. Can perform calculation, data processing and automated reasoning tasks. (introduction information, provenience, structure, how to build a program, characteristics of algorithms, input-output declaration, data and variables, types of data, types of variables, expressions, types of expressions, algorithmic operations, algorithmic structures).

Computer Programming – (Operating systems, file systems, file extensions, hardware and software, programming languages, compiler, interpreter).

Framework – Layered structure indicating what kind of programs can be build and how they interrelate with each other. It can be a real or conceptual structure meant to serve as a support/guide for building something. Defines the flow of control for the application.

Fundamentals Of Coding – Coding can be found in software engineering, application design, cloud computing administration, network administration, IT maintenance, website building, cyber security.

Other concepts studied – Input, Output, Computer Program, Programming Languages, Data, Variables, Constants, Expressions, Operating Systems, Hardware, Software, BIOS, Fat32, NTFS, Protocols, Compilers, Interpreters, W3C, GUI, Procedural Programming, Object-Oriented Programming, Software Library, Data Structures, Control Structures, Syntax, Programming Tools, Integers, Strings, Code Flow, Integrated Development Environments.